Eurojuris Law Journal-Neu


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Herausgeber: Dr.Hök/Prehm
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Private International Law Materials

Contract Law

collected by Dr. Götz-Sebastian Hök, lawyer in Berlin

* * *

A. Einführung/Introduction

Die Vorschriften des Internationalen Privatrechts (Kollisionsrechts) dienen dazu, bei Rechtsverhältnissen mit Auslandsberührung das maßgebliche und anwendbare materielle Recht zu ermitteln. Es entspricht internationaler Gepflogenheit, daß die jeweils angerufenen Gerichte ihr nationales Internationales Privatrecht befragen, um das anwendbare Recht zu ermitteln. Nicht immer sind die nationalen Kollisionsregeln kodifiziert, gelegentlich sind die Kodifikationen unvollständig oder ergänzungsbedürftig bzw. auslegungsfähig. Deshalb kann ein Blick auf das kodifizierte nationale Kollisionsrecht stets nur ein –wenn auch außerordentlich wichtiger- Einstieg in das nationale Internationale Privatrecht sein. Präzise Antworten auf kollisionsrechtliche Probleme lassen sich im Einzelfall nur geben, wenn ergänzende Informationen zur praktischen Anwendung des kodifizierten Internationalen Privatrechts vorliegen oder eingeholt werden. Ist das heranzuziehende Internationale Privatrecht gänzlich unkodifiziert, sind Rechtsprechung und Literatur auszuwerten. Vorrangig sind aber die Kollisionsregeln zu beachten, die in völkervertraglichen Vereinbarungen umgesetzt wurden. Das IPR des Schuldrechts ist im Römischen EWG-Übereinkommen über das auf vertragliche Schuldverhältnisse anzuwendende Recht vom 19. Juni 1980 (BGBl 1986 II, S. 810) vereinheitlicht. Vertragsstaaten sind

  • Bundesrepublik Deutschland
  • Belgien
  • Dänemark
  • Frankreich
  • Italien
  • Luxemburg
  • Großbritannien
  • Niederlande
  • Irland
  • Griechenland
  • Spanien
  • Portugal

Die anhängende Sammlung soll sukzessive vervollständigt werden. Der Verfasser ist für die Zusendung kodifizierter Kollisionsregeln und Anregungen dankbar.

B. Völkerrechtliche Vereinbarungen/Conventions

I. Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations

Rome, 19th June 1980

[1980] Official Journal Nr. L 266

Preamble

The High Contracting Parties to the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community,

Anxious to continue in the field of private international law the work of unification of law which has already been done with the Community, in particular in the field of jurisdiction and enforcement of judgments,

Wishing to establish uniform rules concerning the law applicable to contractual obligations,

Have agreed as follows:

TITLE 1 - SCOPE OF THE CONVENTION

Article 1 - Scope of the Convention

1. The rules of this Convention shall apply to contractual obligations in any situation involving a choice between the laws of different countries.

2. They shall not apply to:

(a) questions involving the status or legal capacity of natural persons, without prejudice to Article 11; 

(b) contractual obligations relating to:

--wills and succession,

--rights in property arising out of a matrimonial relationship,

--rights and duties arising out of a family relationship, parentage, marriage or affinity, including

maintenance obligations in respect of children who are not legitimate;

(c) obligations arising under bills of exchange, cheques and promissory notes and other negotiable instruments to the extent that the obligations under such other negotiable instruments arise out of their negotiable character;

(d) arbitration agreements and agreements on the choice of court;

(e) questions governed by the law of companies and other bodies corporate or unincorporate such as the creation, by registration or otherwise, legal capacity, internal organisation or winding up of companies and other bodies corporate or unincorporate and the personal liability of officers and members as such for the obligations of the company or body;

(f) the question whether an agent is able to bind a principal, or an organ to bind a company or body corporate or unincorporate, to a third party;

(g) the constitution of trusts and the relationship between settlors, trustees and beneficiaries;

(h) evidence and procedure, without prejudice to Article 14.

3. The rules of this Convention do not apply to contracts of insurance which cover risks situated in the territories of the Member States of the European Economic Community. In order to determine whether a risk is situated in these territories the court shall apply its internal law.

4. The preceding paragraph does not apply to contracts of re-insurance.

Article 2 - Application of law of non-contracting States

Any law specified by this Convention shall be applied whether or not it is the law of a Contracting State.

TITLE II - UNIFORM RULES

Article 3 - Freedom of choice

1. A contract shall be governed by the law chosen by the parties. The choice must be express or demonstrated with reasonable certainty by the terms of the contract or the circumstances of the case. By their choice the parties can select the law applicable to the whole or a part only of the contract.

2. The parties may at any time agree to subject the contract to a law other than that which previously governed it, whether as a result of an earlier choice under this Article or of other provisions of this Convention. Any variation by the parties of the law to be applied made after the conclusion of the contract shall not prejudice its formal validity under Article 9 or adversely affect the rights of third parties.

3. The fact that the parties have chosen a foreign law, whether or not accompanied by the choice of a foreign tribunal, shall not, where all the other elements relevant to the situation at the time of the choice are connected with one country only, prejudice the application of rules of the law of that country which cannot be derogated from by contract, hereinafter called "mandatory rules".

4. The existence and validity of the consent of the parties as to the choice of the applicable law shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Articles 8, 9 and 11.

Article 4 - Applicable law in the absence of choice

1. To the extent that the law applicable to the contract has not been chosen in accordance with Article 3, the contract shall be governed by the law of the country with which it is most closely connected. Nevertheless, a severable part of the contract which has a closer connection with another country may by way of exception be governed by the law of that other country.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 5 of this Article, it shall be presumed that the contract is most closely connected with the country where the party who is to effect the performance which is characteristic of the contract has, at the time of conclusion of the contract, his habitual residence, or, in the case of a body corporate or unincorporate, its central administration. However, if the contract is entered into in the course of that party's trade or profession, that country shall be the country in which the principal place of business is situated or, where under the terms of the contract the performance is to be effected through a place of business other than the principal place of business, the country in which that other place of business is situated.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article, to the extent that the subject matter of the contract is a right in immovable property or a right to use immovable property it shall be presumed that the contract is most closely connected with the country where the immovable property is situated.

4. A contract for the carriage of goods shall not be subject to the presumption in paragraph 2. In such a contract if the country in which, at the time the contract is concluded, the carrier has his principal place of business is also the country in which the place of loading or the place of discharge or the principal place of business of the consignor is situated, it shall be presumed that the contract is most closely connected with that country. In applying this paragraph single voyage charter-parties and other contracts the main purpose of which is the carriage of goods shall be treated as contracts for the carriage of goods.

5. Paragraph 2 shall not apply if the characteristic performance cannot be determined, and the presumptions in paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 shall be disregarded if it appears from the circumstances as a whole that the contract is more closely connected with another country.

Article 5 - Certain consumer contracts

1. This Article applies to a contract the object of which is the supply of goods or services to a person ("the consumer") for a purpose which can be regarded as being outside his trade or profession, or a contract for the provision of credit for that object.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 3, a choice of law made by the parties shall not have the result of depriving the consumer of the protection afforded to him by the mandatory rules of the law of the country in which he has his habitual residence:

--if in that country the conclusion of the contract was preceded by a specific invitation addressed to him or by advertising, and he had taken in that country all the steps necessary on his part for the conclusion of the contract, or

--if the other party or his agent received the consumer's order in that country, or

--if the contract is for the sale of goods and the consumer travelled from that country to another country and there gave his order, provided that the consumer's journey was arranged by the seller for the purpose of inducing the consumer to buy.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 4, a contract to which this Article applies shall, in the absence of choice in accordance with Article 3, be governed by the law of the country in which the consumer has his habitual residence if it is entered into in the circumstances described in paragraph 2 of this Article.

4. This Article shall not apply to:

(a) a contract of carriage;

(b) a contract for the supply of services where the services are to be supplied to the consumer exclusively in a country other than that in which he has his habitual residence.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 4, this Article shall apply to a contract which, for an inclusive price, provides for a combination of travel and accommodation.

Article 6 - Individual employment contracts

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 3, in a contract of employment a choice of law made by the parties shall not have the result of depriving the employee of the protection afforded to him by the mandatory rules of the law which would be applicable under paragraph 2 in the absence of choice.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 4, a contract of employment shall, in the absence of choice in accordance with Article 3, be governed:

(a) by the law of the country in which the employee habitually carries out his work in performance of the contract, even if he is temporarily employed in another country; or

(b) if the employee does not habitually carry out his work in any one country, by the law of the country in which the place of business through which he was engaged is situated;

unless it appears from the circumstances as a whole that the contract is more closely connected with another country, in which case the contract shall be governed by the law of that country.

Article 7 - Mandatory rules

1. When applying under this Convention the law of a country, effect may be given to the mandatory rules of the law of another country with which the situation has a close connection, if and in so far as, under the law of the latter country, those rules must be applied whatever the law applicable to the contract. In considering whether to give effect to these mandatory rules, regard shall be had to their nature and purpose and to the consequences of their application or non-application.

2. Nothing in this Convention shall restrict the application of the rules of the law of the forum in a situation where they are mandatory irrespective of the law otherwise applicable to the contract.

Article 8 - Material validity

1. The existence and validity of a contract, or of any term of a contract, shall be determined by the law which would govern it under this Convention if the contract or term were valid.

2. Nevertheless a party may rely upon the law of the country in which he has his habitual residence to establish that he did not consent if it appears from the circumstances that it would not be reasonable to determine the effect of his conduct in accordance with the law specified in the preceding paragraph.
 
 

Article 9 - Formal validity

1. A contract concluded between persons who are in the same country is formally valid if it satisfies the formal requirements of the law which governs it under this Convention or of the law of the country where it is concluded.

2. A contract concluded between persons who are in different countries is formally valid if it satisfies the formal requirements of the law which governs it under this Convention or of the law of one of those countries.

3. Where a contract is concluded by an agent, the country in which the agent acts is the relevant country for the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2.

4. An act intended to have legal effect relating to an existing or contemplated contract is formally valid if it satisfies the formal requirements of the law which under this Convention governs or would govern the contract or of the law of the country where the act was done.

5. The provisions of the preceding paragraphs shall not apply to a contract to which Article 5 applies, concluded in the circumstances described in paragraph 2 of Article 5. The formal validity of such a contract is governed by the law of the country in which the consumer has his habitual residence.

6. Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 to 4 of this Article, a contract the subject matter of which is a right in immovable property or a right to use immovable property shall be subject to the mandatory requirements of form of the law of the country where the property is situated if by that law those requirements are imposed irrespective of the country where the contract is concluded and irrespective of the law governing the contract.
 
 

Article 10 - Scope of the applicable law

1. The law applicable to a contract by virtue of Articles 3 to 6 and 12 of this Convention shall govern in particular:

(a) interpretation;

(b) performance;

(c) within the limits of the powers conferred on the court by its procedural law, the consequences of breach, including the assessment of damages in so far as it is governed by rules of law;

(d) the various ways of extinguishing obligations, and prescription and limitation of actions;

(e) the consequences of nullity of the contract.

2. In relation to the manner of performance and the steps to be taken in the event of defective performance regard shall be had to the law of the country in which performance takes place.
 
 

Article 11 - Incapacity

In a contract concluded between persons who are in the same country, a natural person who would have capacity under the law of that country may invoke his incapacity resulting from another law only if the other party to the contract was aware of this incapacity at the time of the conclusion of the contract or was not aware thereof as a result of negligence.
   
 

Article 12 - Voluntary assignment

1. The mutual obligations of assignor and assignee under a voluntary assignment of a right against another person ("the debtor") shall be governed by the law which under this Convention applies to the contract between the assignor and assignee.

2. The law governing the right to which the assignment relates shall determine its assignability, the relationship between the assignee and the debtor, the conditions under which the assignment can be invoked against the debtor and any question whether the debtor's obligations have been discharged.

Article 13 - Subrogation

1. Where a person ("the creditor") has a contractual claim upon another ("the debtor"), and a third person has a duty to satisfy the creditor, or has in fact satisfied the creditor in discharge of that duty, the law which governs the third person's duty to satisfy the creditor shall determine whether the third person is entitled to exercise against the debtor the rights which the creditor had against the debtor under the law governing their relationship and, if so, whether he may do so in full or only to a limited extent.

2. The same rule applies where several persons are subject to the same contractual claim and one of them has satisfied the creditor.

Article 14 - Burden of proof, etc.

1. The law governing the contract under this Convention applies to the extent that it contains, in the law of contract, rules which raise presumptions of law or determine the burden of proof.

2. A contract or an act intended to have legal effect may be proved by any mode of proof recognised by the law of the forum or by any of the laws referred to in Article 9 under which that contract or act is formally valid, provided that such mode of proof can be administered by the forum.

Article 15 - Exclusion of renvoi

The application of the law of any country specified by this Convention means the application of the rules of law in force in that country other than its rules of private international law.

Article 16 - "Ordre public"

The application of a rule of the law of any country specified by this Convention may be refused only if such application is manifestly incompatible with the public policy ("ordre public") of the forum.

Article 17 - No retrospective effect

This Convention shall apply in a Contracting State to contracts made after the date on which this Convention has entered into force with respect to that State.

Article 18 - Uniform interpretation

In the interpretation and application of the preceding uniform rules, regard shall be had to their international character and to the desirability of achieving uniformity in their interpretation and application.

Article 19 - States with more than one legal system

1. Where a State comprises several territorial units each of which has its own rules of law in respect of contractual obligations, each territorial unit shall be considered as a country for the purposes of identifying the law applicable under this Convention.

2. A State within which different territorial units have their own rules of law in respect of contractual obligations shall not be bound to apply this Convention to conflicts solely between the laws of such units.

Article 20 - Precedence of Community Law

This Convention shall not affect the application of provisions which, in relation to particular matters, lay down choice of law rules relating to contractual obligations and which are or will be contained in acts of the institutions of the European Communities or in national laws harmonised in implementation of such acts.

Article 21 - Relationship with other conventions

This Convention shall not prejudice the application of international conventions to which a Contracting State is, or becomes, a party.

Article 22 - Reservations

1. Any Contracting State may, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance or approval, reserve the right not to apply:

(a) the provisions of Article 7(1);

(b) the provisions of Article 10(1)(e);

2. Any Contracting State may also, when notifying an extension of the Convention in accordance with Article 27(2), make one or more of these reservations, with its effect limited to all or some of the territories mentioned in the extension.

3. Any Contracting State may at any time withdraw a reservation which it has made; the reservation shall cease to have effect on the first day of the third calendar months after notification of the withdrawal.

TITLE III - FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 23

1. If, after the date on which this Convention has entered into force for a Contracting State, that State wishes to adopt any new choice of law rule in regard to any particular category of contract within the scope of this Convention, it shall communicate its intention to the other signatory States through the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities.

2. Any signatory State may, within six months from the date of the communication made to the Secretary-General, request him to arrange consultations between signatory States in order to reach agreement.

3. If no signatory State has requested consultations within this period or if within two years following the communications made to the Secretary-General no agreement is reached in the course of consultations, the Contracting State concerned may amend its law in the manner indicated. The measures taken by that State shall be brought to the knowledge of the other signatory States through the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities.

Article 24

1. If, after the date on which this Convention has entered into force with respect to a Contracting State, that State wishes to become a party to a multilateral convention whose principal aim or one of whose principal aims is to lay down rules of private international law concerning any of the matters governed by this Convention, the procedure set out in Article 23 shall apply. However, the period of two years, referred to in paragraph 3 of that Article, shall be reduced to one year.

2. The procedure referred to in the preceding paragraph need not be followed if a Contracting State or one of the European Communities is already a party to the multilateral convention, or if its object is to revise a convention to which the State concerned is already a party, or if it is a convention concluded within the framework of the Treaties establishing the European Communities.

Article 25

If a Contracting State considers that the unification achieved by this Convention is prejudiced by the conclusion of agreements not covered by Article 24(1), that State may request the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities to arrange consultations between the signatory States of this Convention.

Article 26

Any Contracting State may request the revision of this Convention. In this event a revision conference shall be convened by the President of the Council of the European Communities.

Article 27

1. This Convention shall apply to the European territories of the Contracting States, including Greenland, and to the entire territory of the French Republic.

2. Notwithstanding paragraph 1:

(a) this Convention shall not apply to the Faroe Islands, unless the Kingdom of Denmark makes a declaration to the contrary;

(b) this Convention shall not apply to any European territory situated outside the United Kingdom for the international relations of which the United Kingdom is responsible, unless the United Kingdom makes a declaration to the contrary in respect of any such territory;

(c) this Convention shall apply to the Netherlands Antilles, if the Kingdom of the Netherlands makes a declaration to that effect.

3. Such declarations may be made at any time by notifying the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities.

4. Proceedings brought in the United Kingdom on appeal from courts in one of the territories referred to in paragraph 2(b) shall be deemed to be proceedings taking place in those courts.

Article 28

1. This Convention shall be open from 19 June 1980 for signature by the States party to the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community.

2. This Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by the signatory States. The instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities.

Article 29

1. This Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the third month following the deposit of the seventh instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval.

2. This Convention shall enter into force for each signatory State ratifying, accepting or approving at a later date on the first day of the third month following the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval.

Article 30

1. This Convention shall remain in force for 10 years from the date of its entry into force in accordance with Article 29(1), even for States for which it enters into force at a later date.

2. If there has been no denunciation it shall be renewed tacitly every five years.

3. A Contracting State which wishes to denounce shall, not less than six months before the expiration of the period of 10 or five years, as the case may be, give notice to the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities. Denunciation may be limited to any territory to which the Convention has been extended by a declaration under Article 27(2).

4. The denunciation shall have effect only in relation to the State which has notified it. The Convention will remain in force as between all other Contracting States.

Article 31

The Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities shall notify the States party to the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community of:

(a) the signatures;

(b) the deposit of each instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval;

(c) the date of entry into force of this Convention;

(d) communications made in pursuance of Articles 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 and 30;

(e) the reservations and withdrawals of reservations referred to in Article 22.

Article 32

The Protocol annexed to this Convention shall form an integral part thereof.

Article 33

This Convention, drawn up in a single original in the Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Irish and Italian languages, these texts being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Secretariat of the Council of the European Communities. The Secretary-General shall transmit a certified copy thereof to the Government of each signatory state.
   
 

PROTOCOL

The High Contracting Parties have agreed upon the following provision which shall be annexed to the Convention:

Notwithstanding the provisions of the Convention, Denmark may retain the rules contained in Soloven (Statute on Maritime Law) paragraph 169 concerning the applicable law in matters relating to carriage of goods by sea and may revise these rules without following the procedure prescribed in Article 23 of the Convention.

JOINT DECLARATION

At the time of the signature of the Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations, the governments of the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the French Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,

I. Anxious to avoid, as far as possible, dispersion of choice of law rules among several instruments and differences between these rules, express the wish that the institutions of the European Communities, in the exercise of their powers under the treaties by which they were established, will, where the need arises, endeavour to adopt choice of law rules which are as far as possible consistent with those of this Convention;

II. Declare their intention as from the date of signature of this Convention until becoming bound by Article 24, to consult with each other if any one of the signatory States wishes to become a party to any Convention to which the procedure referred to in Article 24 would apply;

III. Having regard to the contribution of the Convention on the law applicable to contractual obligations to the unification of choice of law rules within the European Communities, express the view that any State which becomes a member of the European Communities should accede to this Convention.

JOINT DECLARATION

The governments of the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the French Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,

On signing the Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations;

Desiring to ensure that the Convention is applied as effectively as possible;

Anxious to prevent differences of interpretation of the Convention from impairing its unifying effect;

Declare themselves ready:

1. To examine the possibility of conferring jurisdiction in certain matters on the Court of Justice of the European Communities and, if necessary, to negotiate an agreement to this effect;

2. To arrange meetings at regular intervals between their representatives.
 
 
 

C. Gesetzestexte/Legal materials

I. Czech Private International Law (english Version)

Section 3, Legal Capacity

1. The capacity of a person (an individual) to acquire rights and to undertake acts in law (legal transactions) shall be governed by the law of the country (state) of which he or she is a citizen, unless this Act provides otherwise.

2. If an act in law is undertaken by a foreigner in the Czech Republic, it shall be sufficient if he or she has the the capacity to undertake such act in law under Czech law.

Section 4, Acts in Law

Unless something else is provided or required for a reasonable arrengement (regulation) of relationships, the validity of an act in law, as well as the consequences of its invalidity, shall be governed by the same (system of) law which governs the effects of this act in law; however, with regard to the form of an act in law, it shall be sufficient if it conforms to the law of the place where the will was demonstrated, except when the system of law governing the contract stipulates that it must be in writing in order to be valid.

Section 5, Substantive Rights (Rights Related to Things)

Substantive rights related to real estate (an immovable thing) or a movable thing shall be governed by the law of the place where the thing is situated, unless this Act or other provisions stipulate otherwise.

Section 6

The coming into being and discharge of substantive rights pertaining to a movable thing shall be governed by the law of the place where the thing is situated at the time of occurrence of a fact on which the coming into being or discharge of these rights is based. In the case of a thing that is transported (forwarded) under a contract, the coming into being or discharge of the rights is considered according to the law of the place from where the thing was despatched.

Section 7

The provisions concerning entries in public records (real estate cadastres, land registry) at the place where real estate (an immovable thing) is situated shall apply even when the legal ground of the coming into being, termination, restriction or transfer of the right pertaining to a certain entry (registration) is considered according to another law.

Section 8

Positive prescription of a thing (in Czech "vydrzení") is governed by the law of the place where such thing was situated at the beginning of the prescription period. The person acquiring a thing in this manner may refer to the law of the country (state) on whose territory the prescription occurred if, since the time when the thing concerned was in the country (state) in question, all conditions applying to the prescription habe been met in accordance with the law of such country (state).

Section 9, Contractual Rights, Choice of Law

1. The parties to a contract may choose the law to govern their mutual property (proprietary) relationships; they may give even only tacit consent thereto, provided that, taking account of the circumstances, there is no doubt their manifested will (intention).

2. Where the manifestation of will of the contrading parties does not imply otherwise, the provisions of the chosen (system of) law determining the applicable law shall not be taken into consideration.

Section 10

1. Should the contracting parties not choose the applicable law themselves, their contractual relationship shall be governed by the (system of) law whose application represents a reasonable arrangement (regulation) of their relationship.

2. If the above is the case, the relationship of the contracting parties shall, as a rule, be governed as follows:

a) in the case of a contract of sale (contract of purchase) or a contract for (a) work, by the law of the place where the seller or contractor (maker) of the particular work has his registered office (seat) or residential address at the time of conclusion of the contract;

b) in the case of a contract on real estate, by the law where such real estate is situated;

c) in the case of a transportation contract (contract for carriage, forwarding contract or similar contract), by the law of the place where the carrier or forwarder has his registered office (seat) or residential address at the time of conclusion of the contract;

d) in the case of an insurance contract, including a contract on insurance of real estate (immovables), by the law of the place where the insurer has his registered office or residential address at the time of conclusion of the contract;

e) in the case of a mandate of similar contract, by the law of the place where the mandatary (the person who will carry out the instruction under the mandate) has registered office or residential address at the time of conclusion of the contract;

f) in the case of a contract on commercial representationor a brokerage contract, by the law of the place where the principal (the represented person) has his registered office or residential address at the time of conclusion of the contract;

g) in the case of a contract on multilateral barter transactions (deals), by the law of the place whose application best corresponds to the arrangement (regulation) of such relationships in their entirety.

3. Other contracts shall be governed, as a rule, by the law of the place in which both parties have their registered office or residential address; should the registered office or residential address of the contracting parties not be in the same country (state), but the conclusion of the contract is atteded in person by them, the contract shall be governed by the law of the place where it is concluded; and if a contract is concluded by parties not attending in person, the contract shall be governed by the law of the country in which the party (person) accepting the offer to conclude a contract has this registered office or residential address.

Section 11

The law (national law) as determined according to section 9 or section 10 shall also apply to amendments, the securing of obligations and the consequences of breaching obligations stipulated therein, unless the intention of the parties or the nature of a thing implies otherwise.

Section 12

With regard to movables, the law as determined according to sections 9 to 11 shall also govern the following:

a) the moment (time) when the transferee acquires the right to dispose of a thing being transferred to him; 

b) the moment (time) when the transferee acquires the right to fruits and yields of the thing being transferred to him;

c) the moment (time) when the risk of damage relating to a thing being transferred passes to the transferee; 

d) the moment (time) when the right to compensation for damage which arises in connection with the thing being transferred passes to the transferee;

e) the reservation of ownership title (right) to the thing being transferred.

Section 13, Statute of Limitations

1. Rights arising from 1 contract shall become statute-barred in accordance with the law of the place governing the particular contractual relationship.

2. Set-off shall be regulated by the law of the place governing the claim in respect of which such set-off is to be made, unless the reasonable arrangement (regulation) of the legal relationship implies otherwise.

Section 14

Legal relationship which arise from unilateral acts in law shall be governed by the law of the country (state) in which the debtor has his residential address or registered office.

Section 15

Entitlement to damages (compensation for damage) shall be governed by the law of the place where the damage occurred, or by the law of the place where the occurrence happened on which the entitlement to damages is based, unless such damages arise from breach of a contructual duty and/or of another act in law.

1. Unless this Act or other provisions stipulate otherwise, foreigners shall have the same rights and duties in the sphere of personal and proprietary rights as citizens of the Czech Republic.

2. Should a foreign country impose a régime on Czech citizens which is different from that applicable to ist own citizens, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs may agree with the relevant Czech authorities that the provisions of subsection (1) shall not apply.

3. The provisions of subsections (1) and (2) shall similarly apply to legal entities’ proprietary relationships.

II. Tunisien Private International Law (French version)

Les obligations, Section 1, Les obligations volontaires

Art. 62: Le contrat est régi par le droit désigné par les parties. A défaut par celles-ci de désigner la loi applicable, le contrat est régi par la loi de l’Etat du domicile de la partie dont l’obligation est déterminante pour la qualification du contrat, ou celle du lieu de son établissement, lorsque le contrat est conclu dans le cadre de son activité professionnelle ou commerciale.

Art. 63: A défaut de désignation par les parties de la loi applicable, les contrats relatifs à l’exploitation des immeubles sont régis, quant à leur forme et leur object, par la loi du lieu de la situation de l’immeuble.

Art. 64: Le droit applicable au contrat régit notamment:

1. Son existence,

2. Sa validité,

3. Son interprétation,

4. L’exécution des obligations qui en découlent,

5. Les conséquences de l’inexécution totale ou partielle des obligations, y compris l’évalution du dommage et les modes de réparation,

6. Les divers modes d’extinction des obligations ainsi que leur prescription fondée sur l’expiration des délais,

7. Les conséquences de la mullité du contrat.

Les modalités d’exécution, et les mesures à prendre par le créancier en cas de défaut d’exécution sont régies par le droit de l’Etat dans le quel e’les sont effectivement prises.

Art. 65: Les transfert de l’oblibation contractuelle est régi par le droit désigné par les parties; ce choix n’est opposable au débiteur ou au créancier initial qu’avec son accord.

Si les parties ne désignent pas la loi applicable, le transfert de l’obligation contractuelle est régi par la loi applicable à l’obligation transférée. 

Art. 66: En cas d’extinction de la dette par compensation, le droit applicable est celui qui régit la créance elle même.

Art. 67: Le contrat de travail est régi par le droit de l’Etat dans lequel le travailleur accomplit habituellement son travail.

Si le travailleur accomplit habituellement son travail dans plusieurs Etats, le contrat de travail est régi par le droit de l’Etat de l’établissement de l’employer, à moins qu’il ne résulte de l’ensemble des circonstances que le contrat de travail a des biens plus étroits avec un autre Etat, auquel cas la loi de celui-ci est applicable.

Art. 68: Le contrat est valable quant à la forme s’il satisfait aux conditions déte minées par la loi applicable au contrat ou par celle du lieu de sa conclusion.

La forme d’un contrat conclu entre personnes qui se trouvent dans des Etats différents, est valable si elle satisfait aux conditions fixées par le droit de l’un des ces Etats.

Art. 69: A défaut par les parties de désigner un droit différent, les contrats portant sur la propriété intellectuelle sont régis par le droit de l’Etat du lieu de résidence habitelle de celui qui transfère ou concède le droit de propriété intellectuelle.

Les contrats passés entre un employeur et un travailleur, et relatifs aux droits ce propriété intellectuelle, que le travailleur a réalisée dans le cadre de l’accomplissement de son travail, sont régis par le droit applicable au contrat de travail.

III. German Private International Law (deutsche Fassung)

Art. 27 Freie Rechtswahl

Freedom of choice

(1) Der Vertrag unterliegt dem von den Parteien gewählten Recht. Die Rechtswahl muß ausdrücklich sein oder sich mit hinreichender Sicherheit aus den Bestimmungen des Vertrages oder aus den Umständen des Falles ergeben. Die Parteien können die Rechtswahl für den ganzen Vertrag oder nur für einen Teil treffen.

(2) Die Parteien können jederzeit vereinbaren, daß der Vertrag einem anderen Recht unterliegen soll als dem, das zuvor auf Grund einer früheren Rechtswahl oder auf Grund anderer Vorschriften dieses Unterabschnitts für ihn maßgebend war. Die Formgültigkeit des Vertrages nach Artikel 11 und Rechte Dritter werden durch eine Änderung der Bestimmung des anzuwendenden Rechts nach Vertragsabschluß nicht berührt.

(3) Ist der sonstige Sachverhalt im Zeitpunkt der Rechtswahl nur mit einem Staat verbunden, so kann die Wahl des Rechts eines anderen Staates – auch wenn sie durch die Vereinbarung der Zuständigkeit eines Gerichts eines anderen Staates ergänzt ist – die Bestimmungen nicht berühren, von denen nach dem Recht jenes Staates durch Vertrag nicht abgewichen werden kann (zwingende Bestimmungen).

(4) Auf das Zustandekommen und die Wirksamkeit der Einigung der Parteien über das anzuwendende Recht sind die Artikel 11 , 12 , 29 Abs. 3 und Artikel 31 anzuwenden.

Art. 28 Mangels Rechtswahl anzuwendendes Recht

Applicable law in the absence of choice

(1) Soweit das auf den Vertrag anzuwendende Recht nicht nach Artikel 27 vereinbart worden ist, unterliegt der Vertrag dem Recht des Staates, mit dem er die engsten Verbindungen aufweist. 2 Läßt sich jedoch ein Teil des Vertrages von dem Rest des Vertrages trennen und weist dieser Teil eine engere Verbindung mit einem anderen Staat auf, so kann auf ihn ausnahmsweise das Recht dieses anderen Staates angewandt werden.

(2) Es wird vermutet, daß der Vertrag die engsten Verbindungen mit dem Staat aufweist, in dem die Partei, welche die charakteristische Leistung zu erbringen hat, im Zeitpunkt des Vertragsabschlusses ihren gewöhnlichen Aufenthalt oder, wenn es sich um eine Gesellschaft, einen Verein oder eine juristische Person handelt, ihre Hauptverwaltung hat. Ist der Vertrag jedoch in Ausübung einer beruflichen oder gewerblichen Tätigkeit dieser Partei geschlossen worden, so wird vermutet, daß er die engsten Verbindungen zu dem Staat aufweist, in dem sich deren Hauptniederlassung befindet oder in dem, wenn die Leistung nach dem Vertrag von einer anderen als der Hauptniederlassung zu erbringen ist, sich die andere Niederlassung befindet. Dieser Absatz ist nicht anzuwenden, wenn sich die charakteristische Leistung nicht bestimmen läßt.

(3) Soweit der Vertrag ein dingliches Recht an einem Grundstück oder ein Recht zur Nutzung eines Grundstücks zum Gegenstand hat, wird vermutet, daß er die engsten Verbindungen zu dem Staat aufweist, in dem das Grundstück belegen ist.

(4) Bei Güterbeförderungsverträgen wird vermutet, daß sie mit dem Staat die engsten Verbindungen aufweisen, in dem der Beförderer im Zeitpunkt des Vertragsabschlusses seine Hauptniederlassung hat, sofern sich in diesem Staat auch der Verladeort oder der Entladeort oder die Hauptniederlassung des Absenders befindet. Als Güterbeförderungsverträge gelten für die Anwendung dieses Absatzes auch Charterverträge für eine einzige Reise und andere Verträge, die in der Hauptsache der Güterbeförderung dienen.

(5) Die Vermutungen nach den Absätzen 2, 3 und 4 gelten nicht, wenn sich aus der Gesamtheit der Umstände ergibt, daß der Vertrag engere Verbindungen mit einem anderen Staat aufweist.

Art. 29 Verbraucherverträge

Certain consumer contracts

(1) Bei Verträgen über die Lieferung beweglicher Sachen oder die Erbringung von Dienstleistungen zu einem Zweck, der nicht der beruflichen oder gewerblichen Tätigkeit des Berechtigten (Verbrauchers) zugerechnet werden kann, sowie bei Verträgen zur Finanzierung eines solchen Geschäfts darf eine Rechtswahl der Parteien nicht dazu führen, daß dem Verbraucher der durch die zwingenden Bestimmungen des Rechts des Staates, in dem er seinen gewöhnlichen Aufenthalt hat, gewährte Schutz entzogen wird,

1. wenn dem Vertragsabschluß ein ausdrückliches Angebot oder eine Werbung in diesem Staat vorausgegangen ist und wenn der Verbraucher in diesem Staat die zum Abschluß des Vertrages erforderlichen Rechtshandlungen vorgenommen hat,

2. wenn der Vertragspartner des Verbrauchers oder sein Vertreter die Bestellung des Verbrauchers in diesem Staat entgegengenommen hat oder 

3. wenn der Vertrag den Verkauf von Waren betrifft und der Verbraucher von diesem Staat in einen anderen Staat gereist ist und dort seine Bestellung aufgegeben hat, sofern diese Reise vom Verkäufer mit dem Ziel herbeigeführt worden ist, den Verbraucher zum Vertragsabschluß zu veranlassen.

(2) Mangels einer Rechtswahl unterliegen Verbraucherverträge, die unter den in Absatz 1 bezeichneten Umständen zustande gekommen sind, dem Recht des Staates, in dem der Verbraucher seinen gewöhnlichen Aufenthalt hat.

(3) Auf Verbraucherverträge, die unter den in Absatz 1 bezeichneten Umständen geschlossen worden sind, ist Artikel 11 Abs. 1 bis 3 nicht anzuwenden. Die Form dieser Verträge unterliegt dem Recht des Staates, in dem der Verbraucher seinen gewöhnlichen Aufenthalt hat.

(4) Die vorstehenden Absätze gelten nicht für

1. Beförderungsverträge,

2. Verträge über die Erbringung von Dienstleistungen, wenn die dem Verbraucher geschuldeten Dienstleistungen ausschließlich in einem anderen als dem Staat erbracht werden müssen, in dem der Verbraucher seinen gewöhnlichen Aufenthalt hat.

Sie gelten jedoch für Reiseverträge, die für einen Pauschalpreis kombinierte Beförderungs- und Unterbringungsleistungen vorsehen.

Art. 30 Arbeitsverträge und Arbeitsverhältnisse von Einzelpersonen

Individual employment contracts

(1) Bei Arbeitsverträgen und Arbeitsverhältnissen darf die Rechtswahl der Parteien nicht dazu führen, daß dem Arbeitnehmer der Schutz entzogen wird, der ihm durch die zwingenden Bestimmungen des Rechts gewährt wird, das nach Absatz 2 mangels einer Rechtswahl anzuwenden wäre.

(2) Mangels einer Rechtswahl unterliegen Arbeitsverträge und Arbeitsverhältnisse dem Recht des Staates,

1. in dem der Arbeitnehmer in Erfüllung des Vertrages gewöhnlich seine Arbeit verrichtet, selbst wenn er vorübergehend in einen anderen Staat entsandt -ist, oder

2. in dem sich die Niederlassung befindet, die den Arbeitnehmer eingestellt hat, sofern dieser seine Arbeit gewöhnlich nicht in ein und demselben Staat verrichtet, es sei denn, daß sich aus der Gesamtheit der Umstände ergibt, daß der Arbeitsvertrag oder das Arbeitsverhältnis engere Verbindungen zu einem anderen Staat aufweist; in diesem Fall ist das Recht dieses anderen Staates anzuwenden.

Art. 31 Einigung und materielle Wirksamkeit

Material validity

(1) Das Zustandekommen und die Wirksamkeit des Vertrages oder einer seiner Bestimmungen beurteilen sich nach dem Recht, das anzuwenden wäre, wenn der Vertrag oder die Bestimmung wirksam wäre.

(2) Ergibt sich jedoch aus den Umständen, daß es nicht gerechtfertigt wäre, die Wirkung des Verhaltens einer Partei nach dem in Absatz 1 bezeichneten Recht zu bestimmen, so kann sich diese Partei für die Behauptung, sie habe dem Vertrag nicht zugestimmt, auf das Recht des Staates ihres gewöhnlichen Aufenthaltsorts berufen.

Art. 32 Geltungsbereich des auf den Vertrag anzuwendenden Rechts

Scope of the applicable law

(1) Das nach den Artikeln 27 bis 30 und nach Artikel 33 Abs. 1 und 2 auf einen Vertrag anzuwendende Recht ist insbesondere maßgebend für

1. seine Auslegung,

2. die Erfüllung der durch ihn begründeten Verpflichtungen,

3. die Folgen der vollständigen oder teilweisen Nichterfüllung dieser Verpflichtungen einschließlich der Schadensbemessung, soweit sie nach Rechtsvorschriften erfolgt, innerhalb der durch das deutsche Verfahrensrecht gezogenen Grenzen,

4. die verschiedenen Arten des Erlöschens der Verpflichtungen sowie die Verjährung und die Rechtsverluste, die sich aus dem Ablauf einer Frist ergeben,

5. die Folgen der Nichtigkeit des Vertrages.

(2) In bezug auf die Art und Weise der Erfüllung und die vom Gläubiger im Fall mangelhafter Erfüllung zu treffenden Maßnahmen ist das Recht des Staates, in dem die Erfüllung erfolgt, zu berücksichtigen.

(3) Das für den Vertrag maßgebende Recht ist insoweit anzuwenden, als es für vertragliche Schuldverhältnisse gesetzliche Vermutungen aufstellt oder die Beweislast verteilt. Zum Beweis eines Rechtsgeschäfts sind alle Beweismittel des deutschen Verfahrensrechts und, sofern dieses nicht entgegensteht, eines der nach Artikel 11 und 29 Abs. 3 maßgeblichen Rechte, nach denen das Rechtsgeschäft formgültig ist, zulässig.

Art. 33 Übertragung der Forderung; gesetzlicher Forderungsübergang

Voluntary assignment, Subrogation

(1) Bei Abtretung einer Forderung ist für die Verpflichtungen zwischen dem bisherigen und dem neuen Gläubiger das Recht maßgebend, dem der Vertrag zwischen ihnen unterliegt.

(2) Das Recht, dem die übertragene Forderung unterliegt, bestimmt ihre Übertragbarkeit, das Verhältnis zwischen neuem Gläubiger und Schuldner, die Voraussetzungen, unter denen die Übertragung dem Schuldner entgegengehalten werden kann, und die befreiende Wirkung einer Leistung durch den Schuldner.

(3) Hat ein Dritter die Verpflichtung, den Gläubiger einer Forderung zu befriedigen, so bestimmt das für die Verpflichtung des Dritten maßgebende Recht, ob er die Forderung des Gläubigers gegen den Schuldner gemäß dem für deren Beziehungen maßgebenden Recht ganz oder zu einem Teil geltend zu machen berechtigt ist. Dies gilt auch, wenn mehrere Personen dieselbe Forderung zu erfüllen haben und der Gläubiger von einer dieser Personen befriedigt worden ist.

Art. 34 Zwingende Vorschriften

Mandatory rules

Dieser Unterabschnitt berührt nicht die Anwendung der Bestimmungen des deutschen Rechts, die ohne Rücksicht auf das auf den Vertrag anzuwendende Recht den Sachverhalt zwingend regeln.

Art. 35 Rück- und Weiterverweisung; Rechtsspaltung

Exclusion of renvoi, States with more than one legal system 

(1) Unter dem nach diesem Unterabschnitt anzuwendenden Recht eines Staates sind die in diesem Staat geltenden Sachvorschriften zu verstehen.

(2) Umfaßt ein Staat mehrere Gebietseinheiten, von denen jede für vertragliche Schuldverhältnisse ihre eigenen Rechtsvorschriften hat, so gilt für die Bestimmung des nach diesem Unterabschnitt anzuwendenden Rechts jede Gebietseinheit als Staat.

Art. 36 Einheitliche Auslegung

Uniform interpretation

Bei der Auslegung und Anwendung der für vertragliche Schuldverhältnisse geltenden Vorschriften dieses Kapitels ist zu berücksichtigen, daß die ihnen zugrunde liegenden Regelungen des Übereinkommens vom 19. Juni 1980 über das auf vertragliche Schuldverhältnisse anzuwendende Recht (BGBl. 1986 II S. 809) in den Vertragsstaaten einheitlich ausgelegt und angewandt werden sollen.

 


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